Cerebral aspergillosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in a child with chronic granulomatous disease

Muhammed Waqas, Aga Khan University
Sidra Zafar, Aga Khan University
Tooba Rehman, Aga Khan University
Muhammed Riyaz, Aga Khan University
Muhammad Ehsan Bari, Aga Khan University




Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immune disorder that affects phagocytes. It is characterized by recurrent or persistent bacterial and fungal infections. Reports of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with CGD are rare. In developing countries, where TB is endemic, possibility of other chronic infections is often overlooked by physicians.


We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who had recurrent respiratory infections and episodes of headache. He was put on antituberculosis (ATT) drugs without microbiological or pathological evidence 2 months prior to presentation. The child did not improve and was brought to our hospital where a computed tomography scan revealed multiple cerebral abscesses. These abscesses were excised. The microbiological specimen was determined to be positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. His tracheal aspirate was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction assay. Further work-up confirmed the diagnosis of CGD in the child.


This report describes the course of the patient's illness in order to highlight the challenges associated with the management of these infections. We also aim to stress on the importance of pathological diagnosis before starting a therapy.