Comparison of enteral versus intravenous potassium supplementation in hypokalaemia in paediatric patients in intensive care post cardiac surgery: open-label randomised equivalence trial (EIPS)

Naveed ur Rehman Siddiqu, Aga Khan University
Quratulain Merchant, Aga Khan University
Babar Hasan, Aga Khan University
Arjumand Rizvi, Aga Khan University
Muneer M Amanullah, Aga Khan University
Amina Rehmat,, Aga Khan University
Anwarul Haque, Aga Khan University




The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of enteral potassium replacement (EPR) and intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) as first-line therapy. Secondary objectives included comparison of adverse effects and number of doses required to resolve the episode of hypokalaemia.


The EIPS trial is designed as a randomised, equivalence trial between two treatment arms.


The study was conducted at the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.


41 patients (aged 1 month to 15 years) who were admitted to PCICU post cardiac surgery were recruited (23 IVPR arm and 18 EPR arm).


Intervention arms were block randomised on alternate weeks for IVPR and EPR.


Change in serum potassium levels in (mmol/L) and percentage change after each event of potassium replacement by the intravenous or enteral route.


Both groups (41 patients) had similar baseline characteristics. Mean age was 4.7 (SD±4) years while the most common surgical procedure was ventricular septal defect repair (12 patients, 29.3%). No mortality was observed in either arm. Four episodes of vomiting and one arrhythmia were seen in the EPR group. After adjusting for age, potassium level at the beginning of the episode, average urine output, inotropic score and diuretic dose, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference in change in potassium levels after EPR and IVPR: 0.86 mmol/L (±0.8) and 0.82 mmol/L (±0.7) respectively (p=0.86, 95% CI -0.08 to 1.10), or percentage change in potassium level after enteral and intravenous replacement: 26% (±30) and 24% (±20) (95% CI -3.42 to 4.03, p=0.87).


EPR may be an equally efficacious alternative first-line therapy in treating hypokalaemia after surgery in selective patients with congenital heart disease.


This study has been approved by Ethics Review Committee at AKU.