Document Type



Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery


Objective: To estimate the proportion of smokers among passengers of air-conditioned (A/C) coaches running between Karachi and Hyderabad. Pakistan.METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was done on passengers and staff members of 20 air-conditioned coaches.Results: Of 847 passengers interviewed, 17.3% were smokers and 11.7% passengers smoked during travel while rest of them remained passive smokers. Out of 147 smokers 91.2% were literate persons. Among staff members 59.3% were smokers. Approximately 56% of smokers among passengers were in the age range of 14-40 years. In 95% of A/C coaches there were no anti-smoking warning signs or written words present.CONCLUSION: In this study majority of smokers were literate, so inter-personal communication and counseling may change the smoking behavior. Ministry of Health should disseminate educational messages regarding hazards of passive smoking among commuters of AC coaches and above all proper implementation of legislation for smoking at public places especially in transport.


Journal of Pakistan Medical Association

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License