Title

Treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumors of bone: A retrospective cohort from a developing country

Document Type

Article

Department

Orthopaedic Surgery; Surgery

Abstract

Introduction: GCT is a benign primary bone tumor which is known to cause local recurrence as well as distant metastases. The standard care of treatment of GCT in our institution is the extended intralesional curettage followed by the use bone cement and either phenol or alcohol as adjunct therapy. This offers preservation of joint closest to tumor and decreased risk of recurrence compared to curettage alone. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the recurrence of GCT of the bone and time of recurrence-free survival after primary surgery (curettage with adjunct therapy) and determine the influence of factors like site of tumor involvement and demographic factors on the risk of recurrence.
Methods: Non-funded, non-commercial single group retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital. Total of 44 patients treated for primary GCT of the bone between 1995 and 2015 at our institution were included. Medical record files were reviewed for demographic characteristics, intra-operative findings and post-operative follow-up. Risk factors for recurrence and mean recurrence free survival was calculated using appropriate statistical analysis.
Results: Proximal tibia was the most commonly involved bone followed by distal femur, while intralesional curettage with either phenol or alcohol as adjunct was the most common primary treatment. Mean follow-up period for all patients was 52.1 ± 43.9 months. Out of the 46 tumors operated primarily at our institution, recurrence developed in eight (17.4%) cases. Extra-compartmental spread of tumor and tumor grade were identified to have a significant association with recurrence (P = 0.013 and 0.043 respectively). Estimated recurrence free survival at 2 and 5 - year interval was 0.85 and 0.83 respectively.
Conclusion: Extra-compartmental extension of tumor and a higher-grade lesion is significantly associated with development of recurrence in cases of GCT of bone.

Publication

Annals of Medicine and Surgery

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