Document Type



Department of Medicine; Neurosurgery


Background: Ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) is a major concern to physicians. Limited studies have looked at the outcomes of external ventricular drain (EVD) infection and predictors of unfavorable outcomes. In this study, we assessed the outcomes of EVD infection and predictors of unfavorable outcomes.
Methods: This was a retrospective medical chart review, conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital. All the patients irrespective of age and gender, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of VAI were included. Patients with preexisting bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis were excluded from the study. Outcome assessment was based on Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 1 and 3 months after procedure. Other outcomes included 30-day mortality and total length of hospital stay.
Results: We included 256 patients in the study. 66 patients (25.8%) developed VAI. EVD was the primary procedure in 21 (31.8%) cases. Most patients, 24 (36.4%), had EVD as a secondary procedure for tumor surgery. Median interval between EVD placement and diagnosis of infection was 3 days. Mean length of stay in VAI patients was 31.85 ± 20.53 days. Seven patients required ICU care. Ten patients (15.2%) expired during hospital stay or within 30 days of discharge and further four had GOS of 2 or 3. A total of 52 patients had a favorable outcome after 6 months.
Conclusions: Rate of VAI in this cohort was high. VAI is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay.


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Surgical Neurology International

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.