Golden proportion and golden standard assessment of maxillary anterior teeth among undergraduate students

Document Type



Surgery; Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery


Objective: Dental esthetics is a prime consideration for all patients. While restoring teeth, high importance should be given to the size and shape of teeth for better esthetic results. Various proportions have been recommended to describe the relationship between maxillary anterior teeth. Golden Proportion and Golden Standard are two ratios most commonly used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the golden proportion and golden standard in maxillary anterior teeth among Pakistani undergraduate students.
Methodology: A cross sectional study, conducted in the department of Operative Dentistry at Dental Section of Dow International Medical College (Dow University of Health Sciences). One hundred students (28 males and 72 females) meeting the inclusion criteria were selected, their dental casts were analyzed for actual width and length and apparent width by digital caliper. From these measurements golden standard and golden proportion were calculated.
Results: Mean value of golden standard was found to be 0.82 (82%, p=0.04) as compared to the ideal standard value of 80%. Mean value of golden proportion was found to be 1.67 (p=2.09X10-7)
Conclusion: Within the confines of this study, Golden Proportion and Golden Standard were not found to exist in the sample Pakistani population.


Journal of the Pakistan Dental Association