Knowledge, attitude, and barriers toward ADRs reporting among health-care professionals at tertiary care health settings in Peshawar, Pakistan: A web based study

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Background: Underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is considered a major determinant of poor ADR signal detection in Pakistan. Considering this, the study was proposed to evaluate healthcare professionals' (HCPs) knowledge attitude toward and the barriers that discourse ADRs reporting.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed among HCPs in 3 major tertiary care facilities of Peshawar. A self-administered, 31 items questionnaire was circulated online to collect the required information. Relative index ranking was used to identify the top barriers to the ADR reporting process.
Results: HCPs (n = 322) were requested, and over one-third (n = 122) responded. Of the total, 97 (79.5%) were males, and by designation, 59(48.4%) were resident medical officers. About 45% of the HCPs did not identify the appropriate pharmacovigilance (PV) definition. More than half of the HCPs (52.2%) distinguished the appropriate PV purpose. Nearly 80% HCPs did not know the acceptable reporting time frame, while 22.1% HCPs knew that regulatory body for ADRs does not exist in Pakistan. The majority (95.08%) of the HCPs either strongly agreed or agreed that reporting an ADRs is a professional obligation and all the HCPs were of the opinion that PV should be taught in detail to HCPs. Exploring the barriers, it was identified that the key barriers to ADRs reporting were "unavailability of professional environment to discuss ADRs," Relative Importance Index (RII) = 0.813, "lack of incentives for reporting" (RII = 0.774), "lack of knowledge regarding reporting" (RII = 0.693), and "insufficient knowledge of pharmacotherapy in detecting ADRs" (RII = 0.662). In addition to these, "complicated reporting forms" (RII = 0.616), "lack of motivation for reporting ADRs" (RII = 0.610), and "absence of professional confidence" were seen as major hindrances in effective reporting of ADRs (RII = 0.598).
Conclusion: Concerning PV and ADR reporting poor knowledge was noted. However, the majority of the HCPs showed an explicit attitude regarding ADRs reporting. The majority of the HCPs disclosed unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADRs, lack of incentives, and how to report the main factors hindering the ADRs reporting. It is emphasized that health authorities carve out a niche for a well purposeful PV center and pledge educational activities and trainings for increasing understanding and approaches regarding reporting of ADR.


Hospital Pharmacy