Frequency distribution and combination of risk factors in sonographically dectected cholelithasis versus controls

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Objective: To determine the frequency of known risk factors in adult cholelithiasis patients as compared with age and gender matched controls
Study Design: Cross sectional analytical study.
Setting & Duration: Department of Radiology, Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital, Karachi fro April 2005 to May 2007.
Methodology: A 100 adult patients without balmy calculous disease as identified by symptomatology (control group A) and confirmed on ultrasound were compared with a 100 symptomatic (group C) and a 100 asymptomatic patients (group B) diagnosed as having cholelithiasis on ultrasound.
Variables compared were age gender, marital status, parity and oral contraceptives (OC) use for married females, symptoms, ultrasound findings, obesity as defined by WHO, cephalosporin use, hypercholesterolemia, bowel surgery particularly ileal resection, and hemolytic anemia. ANOVA and Pearson Chi Square testing was carried out with significance at p < 0.05.
Results: The mean age was 35.4 years in group A, 43.2 years in group B and 40.5 years in group C. There were 52% females in group A, 66% in group B and 71% in group C. The most common risk factor in groups A and B was obesity (20 and 37% respectively) and cephalosporins use in group C (49%, p=0.03). Multiple risk factors were present in 42% of the controls, 71% of the asymptomatic and 84% of the symptomatic cholelithiasis groups. The most frequent combination was obesity with multiparity seen in 14% in group A, 28% in group B and 31% in group C.
Conclusion: Multiparous obese females had a greater frequency of cholelithiasis at a young age. Use of cephalosporins and OCC was also more common among those having cholelithiasis than in controls. Those with combination of risk factors should be followed for development of gall stones.


Pakistan Journal of Surgery