Document Type





Background: Breast malignancies are one of the leading causes of deaths in females worldwide. There are a number of risk factors associated with breast cancer but in Karachi Pakistan there are insufficient data available. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted on females in age group between 30-80 years. This study was accomplished by retrospective data collection in Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 108 females with primary malignancy of breast were included along with 108 matched controls. Relationship of various factors with disease was studied using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: A total of 14 variables were analyzed and based on and 7 were found to be risk factors: old age, family history of breast cancer, family history of other carcinomas, personal history of breast carcinoma, early age of menarche, older age of mother at first delivery and lower number of children. Five factors, parity, breast feeding, history of oral contraceptive pills intake, past history of oophorectomy and hysterectomy showed protective associations. One variable, use of hormonal replacement therapy, showed a controversial link and one other, marital status, was not significant in this study. Conclusions: It is concluded that most of the well-known risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with the disease in the female population of Karachi, Pakistan. High risk patients should be the focus with the help of this study so that screening can be more effective for early diagnosis before clinically evident breast malignancy.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License