Document Type





To determine the normal liver, spleen, and renal parameters in adult patients with no comorbidities.
Study Design:
Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study:
Dow Institute of Radiology, Ojha Campus, LEJ Campus, and Al-Mustafa Hospital Karachi, from October 2016 to March 2017.
A total of 3,136 study participants with more than 16 years of age of either gender underwent ultrasound examination. All individuals with morbid conditions like hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), liver cirrhosis, hydronephrosis, renal cyst, and liver mass were excluded. Ultrasound scan was performed and longitudinal and transverse sections were obtained of both kidneys (in full inspiration), spleen and liver.
A significant positive correlation was observed between age and spleen size of the individuals (r=0.053, p=0.012). The correlation of BMI and liver size was also found significantly positive (r=0.237, p <0.001). The correlation of age and kidney size was found significantly negative in between age and right kidney (r=-0.074, p <0.001) and left kidney (r=-0.087, p <0.001). Similarly, the correlation of BMI and renal size was found significantly weak positive between BMI and right kidney (r=0.206, p <0.001) and BMI and left kidney (r=0.227, p <0.001).
BMI was found significantly positively correlated with liver size and both kidneys in study participants. Moreover, spleen was found directly and renal size inversely correlated with age of the individuals.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License