Multiplanar imaging of inferior vena cava variants
Inferior vena cava (IVC) variants are rare and are usually detected incidentally. Even though, these variants are by themselves asymptomatic, they can have important clinical, radiological, and surgical implications. In this pictorial essay, we sensitize the reader to various IVC variants by presenting reports of actual patients. A succinct description of the embryological development of these anatomic variants is also provided.
Baloch, N. U.,
(2015). Multiplanar imaging of inferior vena cava variants. Abdominal Imaging, 40(1), 159-166.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_radiol/221