Cerebral MR venography
This paper illustrates the technique and clinical use of cerebral MR venography (MRV). Dural sinus thrombosis is detected by both two-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) and three-dimensional phase-contrast (PC) techniques. Venous angiomas are demonstrated by the three-dimensional PC method. The arterial feeders, nidus and draining veins of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can be visualized on contrast-enhanced TOF three-dimensional MR angiogram. The high-flow draining veins of cerebral and dural AVMs, vein of Galen malformation and carotid cavernous fistula are better seen on contrast-enhanced three-dimensional gradient-echo MRV.
Pui, M. H.
(2004). Cerebral MR venography. Clinical Imaging, 28(2), 85-89.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_radiol/159