Peripheral vascular malformations (PVMs) represent a wide spectrum of vascular abnormalities occurring due to anomalous connections between arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymphatic channels at the microscopic level, in different combinations. They are rare and challenging to treat. Different operators may have different approaches based on their experience and expertise. Sclerotherapy either alone or in combination with embolization has been used as an independent method for the treatment of PVMs. Purpose The aim of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of sclerotherapy and embolization, with or without surgery, for the treatment of peripheral vascular malformations, based on our approach. Materials and methods A retrospective review of all patients with PVMs treated in our interventional radiology department from 2011 to 2017 was carried out. Medical records, imaging, and follow-up notes were reviewed to evaluate the response to treatment and post-procedure complications. Results Thirty-four sessions were performed in 15 patients (eight male, seven female) with PVMs. Low-flow lesions were identified in 10, intermediate flow in one, and high flow in four patients. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) was used as the sclerotherapeutic agent in 10 (66.67%), glue with lipoidal in three (20.0%), and bleomycin in one patient (6.67%). Coils with PVA and a covered stent were used in one and a combination of coil, PVA, and gel foam was used in one patient. A marked response was seen in 11 and a partial response in four patients. One patient developed foot gangrene. Stent thrombosis was noted in one patient with no clinical consequences. Recurrence was seen in two patients, who were lost to follow up. Conclusion PVMs are complex lesions. Sclerotherapy with or without embolization is a safe and effective treatment modality, with clinical response approaching 100%
(2018). Role of interventional radiology in the management of peripheral vascular malformations: a tertiary care center experience.. Cureus., 10(3), 1-11.
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