Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) represents a major advance in the early diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. It can detect edema due to ischemia in the brain tissue. It not only establishes the presence and location of ischemic brain injury but also a relatively new concept is the determination of infarct patterns seen on diffusion imaging and its clinical correlation. Objective To determine the frequency of various infarct patterns and their relationship with functional outcome of the patient. Materials and methods A total of 108 patients with acute stroke were enrolled by purposive sampling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained with departmental protocol and diffusion-weighted sequences. The clinical data was collected from medical records and functional outcome was assessed at the time of admission using Barthel Index (BI) which was dichotomized into poor and favorable outcomes. The radiological data was collected and three infarct patterns (cortical, subcortical, and territorial infarcts) were recorded from diffusion-weighted images. Association of other risk factors such as age, gender, diabetes, hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia, and smoking were also evaluated. Results Amongst the three infarct patterns, subcortical infarcts were noted with the highest proportion of 62% (67/108). The highest proportion of territorial infarcts (78.6%) was significantly associated with a poor outcome in comparison to cortical and subcortical infarcts. Cortical infarcts (61.5%) were significantly associated with good outcomes followed by subcortical and then territorial infarcts (p-value < 0.002). Amongst the risk factors, HTN was found to be highly prevalent followed by diabetes mellitus (DM). Conclusion Subcortical infarct pattern was the most common, followed by territorial and cortical infarct. The highest proportion of infarct pattern with good outcomes was seen with cortical infarcts followed by subcortical and then territorial infarct pattern. HTN and coronary artery disease (CAD) were the effect modifiers showing significant association with poor outcomes.
(2018). Clinicoradiological correlation of infarct patterns on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in stroke. Cureus, 10(3).
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