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Purpose Stricture formation at the biliary enteric anastomotic site is a common complication due to fibrotic healing. Few therapeutic options are available for biliary-enteric anastomotic site stricture (BES) including new surgical reconstruction or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage followed by balloon dilation of BES or stent placement. The purpose of this study is to assess the technical success, complications and reintervention rate of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation (PTBD) of BES after iatrogenic bile duct injuries (BDI). Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent PTBD for benign resistant BES, previously treated for iatrogenic BDI, from December 2004 to January 2016 was performed. Diagnostic transhepatic cholangiogram was performed to assess the level of obstruction. BES was dilated using 8-12 mm diameter balloons followed by placement of eight to ten Fr internal-external drainage catheters, which were removed after three to six weeks post-PTBD cholangiogram. Follow-up by clinical assessment, liver function tests, and ultrasound was done. Fischer exact test was used to determine if there was a significant association between PTBD sessions and recurrent strictures. Results In total, 37 patients underwent 66 sessions of PTBD, including 10 (27%) males and 27 (73%) females. The mean age was 41.3 years (range 23-70 years). Out of these, 29 (78%) were treated with choledochojejunostomy and eight (22%) with hepaticojejunostomy. 100% technical success was achieved in all the PTBD sessions. Nineteen (51.3%) patients were treated with a single PTBD session. Mean follow-up time was 36 months (range 1-75 months). Eighteen (48.7%) patients needed reintervention, out of these, 11 (29.7%) were symptom-free after second session on three-year follow-up, three (8%) were symptom-free after the third session of PTBD. No significant difference was observed in risk of recurrent strictures after first and second PTBD sessions [18 (48%) vs. 7 (39%); p-value 0.495]. In four (11%) patients, the symptoms persisted and BES recurred even after third session and those were treated by placing metallic stent. In total, three (8.1%) patients got complicated with the stone formation; in two (5%) patients stone was successfully removed percutaneously and in one (3%) patient percutaneous attempt failed so it was followed by surgical removal. Conclusion PTBD is a safe and useful treatment option for benign BES for long-term symptom-free time-period. However, there is no significant difference in developing recurrent BES after PTBD sessions. Few patients with resistant strictures might require stent placement.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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