Document Type



Neurology; Psychiatry; Neurosurgery


In psychiatry, agitated / aggressive patients are often treated with de-escalation techniques. If this does not work, physical or chemical restrains are required; but in the event of resistance, seclusion is applied. We report the findings of baseline study of experiences of physical and chemical restraints in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, where 104 files were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age of patients was 32.5 ±14.3 years with 54.8% men, while the average length of stay was 11.5 ±9.3 days. Agitation, violent behaviour, and aggression were the most common indications for restraints. In total, 94.5% of patients had both physical and chemical restraints with the latter being used as the first choice in 70 patients; whereas, 67.1% of patients' families were not informed before application of restraints. The seclusion need assessment was conducted in 4.1% of patients.


Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP