Recurrence of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: experience at a tertiary care center

Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is the most common ovarian sex cord stromal tumor with a favorable prognosis. However, a subset of patients develop recurrence. We retrieved and reviewed 156 cases of AGCT reported between 1992 and 2012. The ages ranged from 20 to 84 years (mean, 48 years). The size of the tumor ranged from 0.8 to 25 cm (mean, 10 cm). Histologically, all tumors were composed of round or polygonal cells with indented or grooved nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and well defined cell borders. A diffuse pattern was seen in the majority followed by microfollicular, trabecular and macrofollicular. The mitotic figures ranged from 2 to a maximum of 21/10 HPFs. Focal necrosis were seen in 17 cases. Associated simple hyperplasia of endometrium was seen in 9 cases, complex hyperplasia in 2, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in 3 cases. Recurrence was seen in 8 cases with a follow-up of 2 to 19 years (mean, 6 years). The recurrent tumors were mostly >5 cm and sites included the same adnexal site and contralateral ovary, omentum, mesentery of small bowel, abdominal wall, uterine and fallopian tube serosa, lymph nodes, pelvis, and appendix. Histologically, recurrent tumors exhibited a diffuse histologic pattern and a mitotic count of 6.8 as compared to 3.3 in primary tumors. In conclusion, a tumor size of >5 cm and a diffuse histologic pattern were associated with increased recurrence risk. The recurrent tumors hadz increased mitotic figures compared with primary tumors. Appendix, a very rare site of recurrence was seen in one of our cases.


Annals of Diagnostic Pathology