Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Management of infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is challenging. In recent times, agents such as colistin and fosfomycin have been used in combination with other antibiotics to treat such infections. In this study, we aim to seek frequency of colistin and fosfomycin resistance in CRE from Pakistan.
This study was conducted at clinical laboratories, Aga Khan University Hospital. In total, 251 CRE were included in the study. Colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were performed using broth microdilution (BMD) method and VITEK 2 system, whereas fosfomycin susceptibility was performed using Kirby-Bauer method. MIC50 and MIC90 were calculated for colistin and agreement between VITEK and BMD was also calculated.
Out of 251 strains colistin MIC of ≥4 g/mL was seen in 40 (15.9%). Of these strains 20 (50%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin MIC50 and MIC90 were found to be 0.5 and 16 g/mL, respectively. BMD and VITEK 2 showed 100% categorical agreement. Essential agreement was 88.5% with kappa score 0.733 indicating strong agreement between VITEK and BMD. 31 out of 251 (12.3%) CREs were resistant to fosfomycin.
Study shows frequency of colistin and fosfomycin resistance to be 15.9% and 12.3%, respectively. In countries where rate of CREs is high, emerging resistance against these last resort antibiotics is alarming as it leaves clinicians with almost no options to manage such multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant infections.


Infection and Drug Resistance

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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