Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


To compare the results of a chemical method of kidney stone analysis with the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
Materials and Methods:
Kidney stones collected between June and October 2015 were simultaneously analyzed by chemical and FT-IR methods.
Kidney stones (n=449) were collected from patients from 1 to 81 years old. Most stones were from adults, with only 11.5% from children (aged 3-16 years) and 1.5% from children aged adults, the calcium oxalate stone type, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, n=224), was the most common crystal, followed by uric acid and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, n=83). In children, the most frequently occurring type was predominantly COD (n=21), followed by COM (n=11), ammonium urate (n=10), carbonate apatite (n=6), uric acid (n=4), and cystine (n=1). Core composition in 22 stones showed ammonium urate (n=2), COM (n=2), and carbonate apatite (n=1) in five stones, while uric acid crystals were detected (n=13) by FT-IR. While chemical analysis identified 3 stones as uric acid and the rest as calcium oxalate only. Agreement between the two methods was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.64). Disagreement was noted in the analysis of 77 stones.
FT-IR analysis of kidney stones can overcome many limitations associated with chemical analysis.


Investigative and Clinical Urology

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.