Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Background: Pakistan has an estimated annual burden of 1.5 million malaria cases. The current situation calls for an efective malaria control and eradication programme in this country. Currently, primaquine is an attractive option for eliminating reservoirs of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites and killing gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. However, this drug causes haemolysis in individuals who are glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) defcient. It is important to map G6PD defciency and malaria distribution in Pakistan to design an efective malaria eradication regimen. Frequency of G6PD defciency (G6PDd) in malaria patients has not been reported from Pakistan in any meaningful way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of G6PD c.563C>T (G6PD Mediterranean) in male individuals with and without falciparum malaria.
Methods: Two hundred and ten archived DNA samples from males (110 from falciparum malaria patients and 100 from healthy individuals) were utilized in this study. Healthy blood donors were selected based on stringent predefned criteria. Patients were confrmed for malaria parasites on microscopy and or immune chromatographic assay detecting P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2. Parasitaemia was also computed. DNA samples were tested for G6PD c.563C>T mutation through PCR–RFLP according to the previously defned protocol and its allelic frequency was computed.
Results: G6PD c.563C>T was observed in four of 110 patients with falciparum malaria and in two of 100 healthy donors. Mean (± SD) haemoglobin, median (IQR) platelet and median (IQR) parasite count in G6PD-defcient malariapatients were 8.9 ± 0.9 g/dL, 124 × 109/L (IQR 32, 171) and 57,920/μL of blood (IQR 12,920, 540,000) respectively.
Conclusions: Cumulative allelic frequency for G6PD 563c.C>T was 0.0285 detected in 6 of 210 X-chromosomes in Southern Pakistan. Frequency for this G6PD allele was 0.0364 in malaria-patients and 0.0200 in healthy individuals. Large studies including females are needed to elucidate the true burden of G6PDd in malaria-endemic areas. The information will enable local health policy makers to design efective strategies for eliminating malaria form this region.


Malaria journal

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.