Document Type



Radiology; Centre for Innovation in Medical Education


Objective: To compare carotid Intima media thickness and atherosclerosis burden amongst healthy, diabetic and hypertensive Pakistani patients.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of radiology and family medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi from April 2014 to July 2015. Bilateral carotid ultrasound was done in 133 healthy adults, 65 hypertensive, 31 type-2 diabetic and 37 hypertensive with type-2 diabetes patients. Normal adults were matched for age and gender. Mean intimal media thickness was measured for common and internal carotid arteries. Presence or absence of atherosclerotic plaque was also identified. Height, weight, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and other risk factors were also assessed. Ultrasound findings were compared between healthy and diseased patients through statistical tests.
Results: A total of 266 patients participated (Controls=133, Hypertensive=65, Diabetic=31, and Diabetes with Hypertension=37). There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics between the four patients' groups for age (p>0.05) and gender (p>0.05). The mean carotid intima media thickenss of right common carotid artery was significantly higher in patients with diabetes along with hypertension as compared to the control group (p=0.03). For (RICA) Right Internal Carotid Artery, (LCCA) Left Common Carotid Artery and (LICA) Left Internal Carotid Artery, there was a significantly higher thickness among patients with hypertension as compared to the control group with p=0.011, p=0.002, and p=0.039 respectively.
Conclusion: Increased CIMT is most likely associated with underlying chronic diseases. Ultrasound is a non-invasive, easily available and useful modality for early detection and prevention of vascular atherosclerosis.


Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association

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