Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


Objective:To determine the frequencies of histopathological findings in endometrial and endocervical biopsy samples with clinical history of Postmenopausal Bleeding (PMB). Study Design:Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study:Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from February 2012 to January 2013. Methodology:Atotal of 157 consecutive endometrial and endocervical biopsy specimens with history of postmenopausal bleeding were included. After microscopic examination, frequencies of histological findings in different age groups were generated. Chi-square and independent sample t-tests were applied to see whether the difference was significant which was set at p < 0.05. Results:One hundred and twenty-one (77.1%) specimens showed benign pathologies while 36 (22.9%) were malignant. Endometrial polyp was seen in 67 (42.7%) cases followed by endometrial carcinomas in 25 (15.9%), endometrial hyperplasia in 21 (13.4%), cervical carcinoma in 12 (7.6%) and cervical polyps in 9 (5.7%) cases. Ahighly significant increase in the percentage of malignant and pre-malignant lesions was seen with increasing age group (p < 0.001). Mean age of patients with type-2 endometrial carcinoma was higher than type-1 endometrial carcinoma but statistical significance was not observed (70.2 ±6.5 vs. 61.8 ±9.1 years respectively, p=0.069). Conclusion:Although benign pathologies were more common in postmenopausal bleeding but the collective proportion of endometrial and cervical malignancies and pre-malignant conditions was quite high. Therefore, PMB should be urgently evaluated for cause and early commencement of treatment


JCPSP: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan