Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are amongst the most wide spread and serious infections, accounting for over 50 million deaths globally each year. In developing countries, infants under 4 years of age are at greatest risk of lower RTIs, whereas in developed countries the severity of infection and rate of mortality are greater in elderly. The objective of the survey was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of antibiotics commonly prescribed RTIs against Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Streptococcus pyogenes, isolated from patients with community-acquired RTIs globally. This survey involved 9 countries. In this study we present the results from Pakistan where SP and HI only were tested.

METHODS: A total of 200 isolates were included in the study. Both SP and HI were in equal number. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and E test for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. For non-US products the Committee of the Antibiogram of the French Society of Microbiology Breakpoints was used.

RESULTS: All SP were found susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclave and cefixime, 72% isolates were found sensitive to macrolide and 97% to levofloxacin. All HI were found sensitive to co-amoxiclave and to cefixime, 97% to ampicillin, 98% to clarithromycin and 99% to levofloxacin.

CONCLUSION: In isolates collected from Pakistan, SP resistance rate was elevated for macrolide. SP and HI remain susceptible to beta-lactams as well as to levofloxacin.


Journal of Ayub Medical College

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