Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


Background & Aims:

The gastrointestinal trefoil factor family (TFF1, TFF2, TFF3) peptides are considered to play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosa. The physiological role of TFF2 in the protection of the GI tract was investigated in TFF2 deficiency.


TFF2-/- mice were generated and differential expression of various genes was assessed by using a mouse expression microarray, quantitative real time PCR, Northern blots or immunohistochemistry.


On an mRNA level we found 128 differentially expressed genes. We observed modulation of a number of crucial genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity in the TFF2-/- mice. Expression of proteasomal subunits genes (LMP2, LMP7 and PSMB5) involved in the MHC class I presentation pathway were modulated indicating the formation of immunoproteasomes improving antigen presentation. Expression of one subunit of a transporter (TAP1) responsible for importing degraded antigens into ER was increased, similarly to the BAG2 gene that modulates chaperone activity in ER helping proper loading on MHC class I molecules. Several mouse defensin (cryptdin) genes coding important intestinal microbicidal proteins were up-regulated as a consequence of TFF2 deficiency. Normally moderate expression of TFF3 was highly increased in stomach.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry