Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


OBJECTIVE: To report trends of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL), multidrug resistant (MDR) ESBL and emergence of carbapenem resistant ESBL producing isolates of K. pneumoniae from Pakistan.

METHODS: Retrospective analysis of laboratory data was conducted (2002-2007). K. pneumoniae were isolated and identified from clinical samples using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer. ESBL was detected using combined disc method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.

RESULTS: 15914 K. pneumoniae isolates (2002-2007) were analyzed. Significant increase in ESBL and MDR ESBL producing K. pneumoniae (p = or < 0.0001) was observed. We found significant association of ESBL positive K. pneumoniae with age less than 10 years, males and blood isolates (p = 0.001). 0.4% (n=23) of ESBL positive isolates were carbapenem resistant.

CONCLUSIONS: Increase in ESBL and carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae is a serious threat to public health requiring continuous surveillance and use of appropriate screening tests for laboratory detection.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association

Included in

Pathology Commons