Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology; Medicine; Surgery



Axillary lymph node involvement in primary breast cancer is one of its most important prognostic features. Thus any factors that may predict axillary lymph node involvement in this setting could be potentially helpful in treatment planning and other interventions.


The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, pathological and immuno-histochemical markers in univariate and multivariate analysis, which may be helpful predictors of axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer.


A retrospective analysis of 555 cases. Of these 58% had axillary nodal positivity and 42% were negative.


Factors of no significance included patient’s age, height, weight, age of first pregnancy, parity, marital status, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, side of tumor. In univariate analysis the age of menarche, duration of symptoms, tumor size, site in outer quadrant, S phase and skin and nipple involvement all predicted axillary nodal involvement. The length of breast-feeding, increased intraductal component and increased PCNA were inversely proportional to nodal involvement. In multiple regression analysis however only size of the tumor, involvement of the skin and nipple and disease in the outer quadrant of breast were the factors, which assumed significance

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association