Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


Objective: To study the trends of cancer esophagus in Karachi South during 1995-2002 and identify risk factors.

Methods: Incident esophageal cancer cases recorded at the Karachi Cancer Registry for Karachi South, during 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2003 were reviewed. For maximum completion of data, incident cases registered from 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2002 were included for final analyses.

Results: The Age Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIRs) of cancer esophagus in Karachi South for males were 6.5/100,000 (1995-1997) and 6.4/100,000 (1998-2002). In females the observed rates were 7.0/100,000 (1995-1997) and 8.6/100,000 (1998-2002).

Conclusion: In the moderately high incidence, cancer esophagus zone of Karachi, the ASIRs in males remained stable during the last decade, but in females, an upward trend was observed suggesting a progressively higher exposure to risk factors in the latter. The potential risk factors in Karachi are use of all forms of tobacco, areca nut, infrequent consumption of raw fruits and vegetables and diet deficiencies. There is a necessity to actively control the proven risk factors and address the existence of other risk factors. The primary recommended strategy for the control of cancer esophagus would therefore be legislation against tobacco and areca nut in Pakistan and public health education. The risk factors of cancer esophagus identified in this article need to be further confirmed.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association