Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Pakistan

Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


Lymphomas are classified as Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (HL; NHL); NHL being further sub-divided into B, T and Null cell categories on the basis of WHO classification. With a few exceptions worldwide, B-NHL are more common, accounting approximately 80-85% of all cases of NHL compared to T-NHL, which accounts for about 10-15% of all NHL cases. The incidence of NHL has shown a steady increase and attention is being focused on the possible causes of this increase. Epidemiologic studies indicate that environmental factors do play a role in the causation of NHL, such as drugs, pesticides, solvents, hair dyes, viruses (EBV, HTLV-1, Hepatitic C and HIV) and Helicobacter pylori. Hence many different environmental factors of risk acting on large segments of the population can contribute for increase of NHL.

Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Molecular and Cellular Medicine