Myoepithelial tumors of soft tissue and bone in children and young adults: A clinicopathologic study of 40 cases occurring in patients ≤ 21 Years of age

Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Myoepithelial tumors of the soft tissue and bone occurring in patients 21 years of age and younger are rare, and their clinicopathologic features remain incompletely understood. We studied a well-characterized series of 40 such tumors. Cases were retrieved from our archives for the period 2009-2022 and re-reviewed. Available immunohistochemical and molecular genetic data was collected. Clinical information including available follow-up was obtained. The tumors occurred in 18 males and 22 females, ranging from 3 months to 21 years of age (median 11.5 years), and involved a wide variety of soft tissue (n = 36) and bone (n = 4) locations. Histologically benign myoepithelial tumors tended to occur in adolescents (median age 14.5 years; range 5-21 years), whereas myoepithelial carcinomas occurred in younger patients (median age 8.5 years; range 3 months-20 years). Microscopically, the tumors showed a complex admixture of epithelioid, plasmacytoid and spindled cells in a variably hyalinized, myxoid, chondroid or chondromyxoid background. Small subsets of histologically malignant tumors had rhabdoid or "round cell" features. Immunohistochemistry showed 35/40 (88%) cases to be positive with at least one keratin antibody. The 5 keratin-negative tumors were uniformly positive for S100 protein and/or SOX10 and expressed EMA (4 cases) and/or p63 (3 cases). EMA, SMA and GFAP were positive in 21/25 (84%), 13/21 (62%), and 8/21 (38%) tumors, respectively. SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 expression was retained in 29/31 (94%) and 22/22 (100%) of cases, respectively. FISH for EWSR1 gene rearrangement was positive in 6/18 (33%) tested cases. Two EWSR1-negative tumors were also FUS-negative. NGS identified EWSR1::POU5F1, FUS::KLF17, and BRD4::CITED1 gene fusions in 3 tested cases. Clinical follow-up (22 patients; median 23 months; range 1-119 months) showed 3 patients with local recurrences and 5 with distant metastases (lymph nodes, lung, and brain). Three patients died of disease, 3 were alive with recurrent or unresectable disease, and 16 were disease-free. Adverse clinical outcomes were seen only in patients with malignant tumors. We conclude that myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue and bone are over-repesented in patients ≤21 years of age, more often histologically malignant, and potentially lethal. Histologic evaluation appears to reliably predict the behavior of these rare tumors.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Human Pathology


10.1016/j.humpath.2024.05.007 Get rights and content