Bridging the gaps in secondary fracture prevention at a single center in Pakistan-Compliance with the IOF best practice framework

Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Orthopaedic Surgery; General Surgery


Purpose: The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) formulated a set of best practice framework as an international benchmark for secondary fracture prevention (SFP) and fracture liaison services (FLS), delineating essential elements of service delivery. The aim of this audit was to assess compliance with the IOF standards for patients ≥ 50 years presenting with fragility hip fractures at a tertiary care center in Pakistan.
Methods: A retrospective sample of hip fracture cases from Jan 2019 to Dec 2019, treated at the section of Orthopedic Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, was conducted. After excluding high energy trauma cases and patients younger than 50 years of age, medical records were audited, using a pre-structured Performa based on IOF standards. Compliance level of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was recorded as defined by IOF. Microsoft excel was used for data analysis.
Results: A compliance level of 3 was recorded for patient identification and fall prevention services, whereas level 1 was attained for database maintenance for 25 (100%) cases. For medication initiation, level 0 was recorded for all the cases; however, 8 (32%) cases were prescribed calcium and vitamin D supplements. For the standards, including post-fracture assessment timing, evaluation of secondary causes of osteoporosis, multifaceted assessment, medication review, communication strategy, and long-term management, a level 0 was noted for 25 (100%) cases. Moreover, no recommended assessment guidelines were followed uniformly.
Conclusion: The care gaps identified require substantial efforts to ensure adequate implementation of the overall best practice standards for SFP, necessitating the need for FLS initiation and establishment of fracture care pathway.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Archives of Osteoporosis