Bedaquiline drug resistance emergence assessment in MDR-TB (DREAM): A 5-Year prospective in-vitro surveillance study of bedaquiline and other second-line drug-susceptibility testing in MDR-TB isolates

Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Bedaquiline Drug Resistance Emergence Assessment in Multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (DREAM) was a 5-year (2015-2019) phenotypic drug-resistance surveillance study across 11 countries. DREAM assessed the susceptibility of 5036 MDR-TB isolates of bedaquiline-treatment-naïve patients to bedaquiline and other anti-tuberculosis drugs by the 7H9 broth microdilution (BMD) and 7H10/7H11 agar dilution (AD) minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Bedaquiline AD MIC quality control (QC) range for the H37Rv reference strain was unchanged, but the BMD MIC QC range (0.015-0.12 μg/ml) was adjusted compared with ranges from a multilaboratory, multicountry reproducibility study conforming to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Tier-2 criteria. Epidemiological cut-off values of 0.12 μg/ml by BMD and 0.25 μg/ml by AD were consistent with previous bedaquiline breakpoints. An area of technical uncertainty or Intermediate category was set at 0.25 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for BMD and AD, respectively. When applied to the 5036 MDR-TB isolates, bedaquiline-susceptible, intermediate and bedaquiline-resistant rates were 97.9%, 1.5% and 0.6%, respectively, for BMD, and 98.8%, 0.8% and 0.4% for AD. Resistance rates were: ofloxacin 35.1%, levofloxacin 34.2%, moxifloxacin 33.3%, 1.5% linezolid and 2% clofazimine. Phenotypic cross resistance between bedaquiline and clofazimine was 0.4% in MDR-TB and 1% in pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR-TB)/XDR-TB populations. Co-resistance to bedaquiline and linezolid, and clofazimine and linezolid, were 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, in MDR-TB, and 0.2% and 0.4% in pre-XDR-TB/XDR-TB populations. Resistance rates to bedaquiline appear to be low in the bedaquiline-treatment-naïve population. No treatment-limiting patterns for cross-resistance and co-resistance have been identified with key TB drugs to date.


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Journal of Clinical Microbiology