Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Introduction: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CREs) are becoming increasingly popular as a cause of hospital-acquired infections that are difficult to treat and are frequently reported as causes of outbreaks in various hospitals. Conventional culturing techniques take at least 2 days to report a case as carbapenem resistant, and it is therefore important to detect such resistance mechanisms as early as possible.
Methods: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Carba NP, modified Hodge test (MHT), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disk synergy test (DST), and the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM). This study was done at Microbiology Laboratory, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It was an observational study. Carba NP, MHT, EDTA DST, and the mCIM were performed on consecutive isolates of Enterobacterales. Sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between the four tests were calculated.
Results: Of 207 Enterobacterales isolated, 127 were resistant to carbapenems. One hundred and fourteen of these were tested by a polymerase chain reaction, and the sensitivities of the Carba NP, MHT, EDTA DST, and the mCIM were found to be 94.34%, 75.47%, 79.25%, and 98.11%, respectively.
Conclusions: Due to increased rates of carbapenem resistance, there is a need to employ mechanisms in hospitals that can identify such organisms as early as possible, both from clinical and epidemiological standpoints. The Carba NP test is a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable method and mCIM is more accurate but time consuming and both can be safely used for the screening of CREs.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Global Infectious Diseases

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.