Infection control education: Impact on ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in a public sector intensive care unit in Pakistan

Document Type



Pathology and Microbiology


We describe efforts towards introducing infection control (IC) practices and establishment of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in a public sector hospital in Pakistan. The study was conducted in an eight-bed intensive care unit. IC principles, introduced through interactive sessions, were used as an intervention and their impact was observed by conducting surveillance for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) before and after the intervention. Respiratory isolates of VAP Patients in the period after intervention were screened for AMR, and empiric antibiotic at the time of admission was compared with the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern reported. VAP rates were high in general and declined in the period after intervention, although the difference was not significant. Of 37 VAP Patients in the period after intervention, 68% had more than one clinically significant organism isolated from the respiratory specimen. Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from 76% of Patients and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 43%. All Acinetobacter spp. and 72% P aeruginosa were multidrug resistant. The mean stay of the nosocomially infected Patients was significantly higher than for the uninfected group (6.5 vs. 2.1 days, P < 0.001). Our study suggests IC education needs to be supplemented by a hospital system that facilitates IC practices and development of surveillance programmes.


Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene