Tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 are possibly involved in Plasmodium vivax-associated thrombocytopaenia in southern Pakistani population
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Background: In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax is endemic causing approximately 70% of the malaria cases. A number of haematological changes, especially thrombocytopaenia have been reported for P. vivax. Several host factors including cell-mediated immune cells, such as IL-1, IL-6 and IL-10 have been documented for P. vivax-induced thrombocytopaenia. However, study on correlation of cytokines and thrombocytopaenia in P. vivax, particularly in patients with severe signs and symptoms has not been reported from Pakistan.Methods: A case control study to correlate TNF, IL-6 and IL-10 in healthy controls and thrombocytopaenic P. vivax-infected patients (both uncomplicated and complicated cases) from southern Pakistan was carried out during January 2009 to December 2011. One Hundred and eighty two patients presenting with microscopy-confirmed asexual P. vivax mono-infection and 100 healthy controls were enrolled in the study at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed for determination of TNF, IL-6 and IL-10 levels.Results: Out of 182 cases, mild thrombocytopaenia (platelet count 100,000-150,000 mm3) was observed in ten (5.5%), moderate (50,000-100,000 mm3) in 93 (51.1%), and profound thrombocytopaenia (<50,000 mm3) was detected in 79 (43.4%) patients. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were found approximately three-fold higher in the mild cases compared to healthy controls. Two-fold increase in TNF and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) was observed in profound thrombocytopaenic when compared with moderate cases, while IL-6 was not found to be significantly elevated.CONCLUSION: Cytokines may have a possible role in P. vivax-induced thrombocytopaenia in Pakistani population. Findings from this study give first insight from Pakistan on the role of cytokines in P.vivax-associated thrombocytopaenia. However, further studies are required to understand the relevance of cytokines in manifestations of thrombocytopaenia in P. vivax malaria.
Khan, M. S.,
Ghanchi, N. K.,
Beg, M. A.
(2014). Tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 are possibly involved in Plasmodium vivax-associated thrombocytopaenia in southern Pakistani population. Malaria Journal, 13, 323.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_pathol_microbiol/1039