Document Type



Pulmonary and Critical Care


OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors contributing to the initiation and propagation of smoking in visitors to a major tertiary health center in Karachi, Pakistan.

METHODS: Seven major contributing factors to the initiation and propagation of smoking were presented to consenting study participants (n=170) in a questionnaire. Participants were then requested to use their experience and opinion to rate each of the given factors on a scale of 1 to 5 regarding its importance as a causative factor in the initiation and propagation of smoking. Results were analyzed using SPSSv16.0.

RESULTS: Preliminary analysis revealed occupational stress relief as the most important factor contributing to smoking with a mean score of 3.25 +/- 1.32. Peer pressure ranked second (Score 3.20 +/- 1.42). Domestic stress relief ranked third with a score of 3.19 +/- 1.32. Smokers gave lower rating than non-smokers to most factors. Younger participants gave higher ratings to peer pressure, and most participants were found to have begun smoking at a young age.

CONCLUSIONS: Even though the addictive power of nicotine or stress may appear as a factor in middle aged smokers, the root of their habit lies in the initiation due to peer pressure.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association