Clinical characteristics, outcome, and factors associated with mortality of pulmonary mucormycosis: A retrospective single-center study from Pakistan

Document Type



Pulmonary and Critical Care; Medicine; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Introduction and objective: Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare but rapidly progressive fatal disease. Limited data exist on the outcomes and factors associated with poor prognosis of pulmonary mucormycosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, factors associated with mortality, and outcomes of pulmonary mucormycosis at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.
Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Medical records of hospitalized patients diagnosed with proven or probable pulmonary mucormycosis between January 2018 and December 2022 were reviewed. Univariate and regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with mortality.
Results: Fifty-three pulmonary mucormycosis patients (69.8% male) were included, with mean age of 51.19 ± 21.65 years. Diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity [n = 26 (49.1%)]. Chronic lung diseases were present in [n = 5 (9.4%)], and [n = 16 (30.2%)] had concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. The predominant isolated Mucorales were Rhizopus [n = 32 (60.3%)] and Mucor species [n = 9 (17%)]. Main radiological findings included consolidation [n = 39 (73.6%)] and nodules [n = 14 (26.4%)]. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was prescribed in [n = 38 (71.7%)], and [n = 14 (26.4%)] of patients received combined medical and surgical treatment. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] hospital stay was 15.0 (10.0-21.5) days. Intensive care unit (ICU) care was required in [n = 30 (56.6%)] patients, with 26 (49.1%) needing mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality was seen in 29 (54.7%) patients. Significantly higher mortality was found among patients requiring mechanical ventilation 20/29 (69%, p = 0.002). Immunosuppression (p = 0.042), thrombocytopenia (p = 0.004), and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.018) were identified as risk factors for mortality on multivariable analysis.
Conclusion: This study provides essential insights into the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and mortality factors associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. The mortality rate was high (54.7%), particularly in patients with immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia, and those who required mechanical ventilation.


Issue and pagination are no provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease