Unraveling disparities: Probing gender, race, and geographic inequities in pulmonary heart disease mortality in the United States: An extensive longitudinal examination (1999–2020) leveraging CDC WONDER data

Document Type

Review Article


Pulmonary and Critical Care; Medical College Pakistan


This comprehensive study delves into the epidemiological landscape of Pulmonary Heart Disease (PHD) mortality in the United States from 1999 to 2020, leveraging the extensive CDC WONDER database. PHD encompasses conditions affecting the right side of the heart due to lung disorders or elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries, including pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Analyzing data from death certificates, demographic characteristics, and geographical segmentation, significant trends emerge. The age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) for PHD-related deaths show a fluctuating pattern, initially decreasing from 1999 to 2006, followed by a steady increase until 2020. Male patients consistently exhibit higher AAMRs than females, with notable disparities observed among racial/ethnic groups and geographic regions. Non-hispanic (NH) Black or African American individuals, residents of specific states like Colorado and the District of Columbia, and those in the Midwest region demonstrate elevated AAMRs. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan areas consistently manifest higher AAMRs than metropolitan areas. These findings underscore the urgent need for intensified prevention and treatment strategies to address the rising mortality associated with PHD, particularly among vulnerable populations. Insights from this study offer valuable guidance for public health initiatives aimed at reducing PHD-related mortality and improving outcomes nationwide.


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Current Problems in Cardiology