Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan

Document Type



Pulmonary and Critical Care



Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited. Objectives: To measure mean concentrations of PM(2.5) (particulate matter Results:The overall mean PM(2.5) value for the visited venues was 846 mu g/m(3) (95%CI 484-1205). The mean PM(2.5) value was 101 mu g/m(3) (95%CI 69-135 mu g/m(3)) for non-smoking venues, 689 mu g/m(3) (95%CI 241-1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 mu g/m(3) (95%CI 925-2565) for shisha smoking venues.


The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.

Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease