Prevalence of and risk factors for respiratory symptoms in an adult urban population
Community Health Sciences; Pulmonary and Critical Care
Objective: To determine prevalence of and risk factors for respiratory symptoms in an adult urban Pakistani population.
Methods: We conducted a multi-stage, community-based, cross-sectional survey from May 2014 to August 2015, comprising 1629 adults from 75 random clusters in Karachi using questionnaire-based interviews.
Results: Around 60% of participants were females and 43% belonged to the >37 years age group. At least one respiratory symptom was reported by 37.5% of participants. Breathlessness was the most common symptom (25.2%, 95%CI 23.1-27.3), followed by acute wheeze (10.1%, 95%CI 8.7-11.7). Multivariable models revealed that males and those aged >37 years were more likely to report acute and chronic phlegm and bronchitis, and breathlessness. Participants with a higher level of education were less likely to report acute and chronic cough. Participants with >5 years pack-years of smoking were more likely to report acute and chronic cough and breathlessness. Other risk factors included passive smoking, regular use of air conditioning and mosquito coils, wet spots and mould in the house, and exposure to dusty jobs.
Conclusion: We found breathlessness to be the most prevalent respiratory symptom and identified various risk factors for respiratory symptoms.
Publication ( Name of Journal)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
(2021). Prevalence of and risk factors for respiratory symptoms in an adult urban population. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 25(1), 16-22.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_med_pulm_critcare/162