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Department of Medicine; Pulmonary and Critical Care; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Introduction: Influenza viruses specifically, A and B mainly contribute to seasonal outbreaks that occur globally. However, due to limited diagnostics for influenza there is little data regarding clinical outcomes of patients with H1N1 pneumonia in our region. Our objective was to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with H1N1 pneumonia at a tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: A retrospective study of adult patients admitted with influenza pneumonia from November 2017 to February 2018 at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Patient characteristics were compared between influenza A H1N1 and other types of influenza using multivariable logistic regression analysis and subgroup analysis for factors associated with mortality in H1N1 Pneumonia was performed.
Results: Out of 497 adult patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), 172 fulfilled the criteria for Influenza like illness (ILI). 88 patients had PCR confirmed Influenza pneumonia of whom n = 57 (65%) had Influenza A H1N1. The mean age of patients 53.5 years (SD: 17.3) and 60% were male. The overall mortality from Influenza in this study was 15.9% (n = 14); out of these 11 (78.5%) had Influenza A H1N1. Multivariable analysis showed that the increase in length of hospital admission was significantly associated with H1N1 Influenza A infection (OR: 1.47 CI: 1.2-1.8). Factors associated with mortality showed that presence of ARDS, Septic shock and multi-organ failure was highly significantly associated with death (p-value < 0.001) along with deranged liver function tests (p-value 0.01) and presence of nosocomial infection (p-value 0.027).
Conclusion: Influenza A H1N1 is associated with greater length of stay compared with infection due to other types of Influenza and mortality in H1N1 Pneumonia was found to be associated with presence of nosocomial infection among several other factors which may have implications given higher rates in a low-middle income country.


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.