Pulmonary and Critical Care
Objectives: To identify the etiology of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB), to assess the clinical presentation, radiological findings, and microbiological profile of patients presenting with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis in a tertiary care center of Pakistan.
Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study where patients with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis proven by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were evaluated for etiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology, radiology, spirometric profile, and in-hospital outcomes.
Results: During the study period, 196 patients were diagnosed with NCFB. The majority of the patients were men 76.5% (n = 150) and 83.6% (n = 163) of the total patients were younger than 60 years of age. The majority of these patients (58.7%, n = 111) had a duration of symptoms between 5-10 years. The etiology of bronchiectasis was identified in 92.9% of cases. Post-infectious bronchiectasis was the most common cause (67.8%, n = 133), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (9.2%, n = 18), and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (7.1%, n = 14). Among the post infectious causes, a history of TB was present in 85% (n = 114/133) of patients. Obstructive impairment was the most common spirometric pattern, observed in 68.9% (n = 135) of patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated organism (36.2%, n = 71). Hemoptysis was the most frequent complication found in 20.9% of patients (n = 41). Out of these 196 patients, 94.4% (n = 185) received medical management and were discharged from the hospital. Respiratory failure was significantly associated with the Pseudomonas group as compared to non-pseudomonas group [(n = 21 (29%) vs n = 18 (14.4%) p = 0.01]. During hospitalization seven patients (3.6%) were died because of respiratory failure.
Conclusions: Post TB bronchiectasis was the leading cause of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis in this cohort, with Pseudomonas was the commonest pathogen isolated from the respiratory specimen, which was significantly associated with respiratory failure. On spirometry, obstructive impairment was found in the majority of patients and hemoptysis was the most frequent complication.
Baig, M. S.,
(2020). Etiology, clinical, radiological, and microbiological profile of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Cureus, 12(3), e7208.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_med_pulm_critcare/156
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