Metabolic risk factors, insulin-resistance and lifestyle in children of type 2 diabetes patients in Karachi, Pakistan

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Aims: To assess Metabolic risk factors, insulin-resistance and lifestyle in children aged 8-20 years of Patients with type 2 diabetes and to compare these with children aged 8-20 years of non-diabetic subjects. Methods: Case-control study. Data were collected from 37 children/adolescents of type 2 diabetes Patients and 37 controls from parents without diabetes. Variables included physical activity, diet, socioeconomic class, family history, ethnic background, anthropometric measures, blood pressure and fasting glucose and insulin. Results: Groups were comparable for age and gender. Differences between cases and controls were found for BMI (22.6 vs. 19.1 kg/m(2), p = 0.004), waist circumference (70.1 vs. 62.1 cm, p = 0.014), systolic blood pressure (104.5 +/- 15.1 vs. 97.9 +/- 13.4 mmHg, p = 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (66.2 +/- 10.9 vs. 60.7 +/- 10.1 mmHg, p = 0.025). Vegetable intake (3% of cases having two and 19% one full serving a day vs., respectively, 14% and 32% amongst controls, p = 0.01) was less favourable in cases, and physical activity tended to be (5 h vs. 9 h/week, p = 0.065). Conclusions: Children of type 2 diabetes Patients have higher BMI and blood pressure than controls but also lead a less healthy lifestyle. This suggests that both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome in children and early preventive measures towards changing lifestyle could help in prevention.


Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice