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Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) is a feared complication of numerous radiological procedures that expose Patients to contrast media. The most notorious of these procedures is percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Not only is this a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, but it also adds to increased costs in high risk Patients undergoing PCI. It is thought to result from direct cytotoxicity and hemodynamic challenge to renal tissue. CIN is defined as an increase in serum creatinine by either ≥0.5mg/dL or by ≥25% from baseline within the first 2-3 days after contrast administration, after other causes of renal impairment have been excluded. The incidence is considerably higher in diabetics, elderly and Patients with pre-existing renal disease when compared to the general population. The nephrotoxic potential of various contrast agents must be evaluated completely, with prevention as the mainstay of focus as no effective treatment exists. The Purpose of this article is to examine the pathophysiology, risk factors, and clinical course of CIN, as well as the most recent studies dealing with its prevention and potential therapeutic interventions, especially during PCI. The role of gadolinium as an alternative to iodinated contrast is also discussed.


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Cardiology Research and Practice

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Nephrology Commons