Document Type



Internal Medicine


Objective: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune process in which cutaneous lesions occur in majority of patients. This study from Karachi, Pakistan was conducted to determine the pattern and prevalence of such lesions in SLE in Pakistani patients.Methods: One hundred ninety eight patients with SLE fulfilling the clinical and laboratory criteria of the American Rheumatology Association were examined between 1986 and 2001 for the presence of cutaneous manifestations.Results: Skin changes noted were: noncicatricial diffuse alopecia (22%), malar rash (31%), mucosal lesions (20%), discoid eruptions (15%), photosensitivity (33%), vascular lesions (20%), pruritus (17%), and pigmentary changes (22%). Peripheral gangrene, chronic ulcers, Raynauds phenomenon, urticaria, chilblains, thrombophlebitis, palmar erythema, and erythema multiform were rare. Anti ANA and anti dsDNA were positive in 93% and 83% patients respectively.CONCLUSION: A different clinical pattern was noted in our patients than reported previously.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.