The role of renal denervation in cardiology and beyond: An updated comprehensive review and future directives

Document Type

Review Article


Internal Medicine


Renal denervation (RDN) is a minimally invasive intervention performed by denervation of the nervous fibers in the renal plexus, which decreases sympathetic activity. These sympathetic nerves influence various physiological functions that regulate blood pressure (BP), including intravascular volume, electrolyte composition, and vascular tone. Although proven effective in some trials, controversial trials, such as the Controlled Trial of Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension (SYMPLICITY-HTN3), have demonstrated contradictory results for the effectiveness of RDN in resistant hypertension (HTN). In the treatment of HTN, individuals with primary HTN are expected to experience greater benefits compared to those with secondary HTN due to the diverse underlying causes of secondary HTN. Beyond its application for HTN, RDN has also found utility in addressing cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, and managing cases of heart failure. Non-cardiogenic applications of RDN include reducing the intensity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), overcoming insulin resistance, and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of RDN and its uses in cardiology and beyond, along with providing future directions and perspectives.


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