Document Type



Department of Medicine; Internal Medicine; Orthopaedic Surgery


Introduction: Limited data exist on clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in low-middle income countries. We aimed to describe the clinical spectrum and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at a tertiary-care center in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methodology: We conducted an observational study of adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized between February-June 2020. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of COVID-19 and PCR positivity were included. We created logistic regression models to understand association of clinical characteristics with illness severity and in-hospital mortality.
Results: The study population comprised 445 patients [67% males, median age 53 (IQR 40-64) years]. Majority of patients (N = 268; 60%) had ≥ 1 co-morbid [37.5% hypertension, 36.4% diabetes]. In-hospital mortality was 13%. Age ≥ 60 (aOR] =1.92; 95 %CI = 1.23-3.03), shortness of breath (aOR=4.43; 95% CI=2.73-7.22), CRP ≥150mg/L (aOR:1.77; 95% CI=1.09-2.85), LDH ≥ 500 I.U/L (aOR:1.98; 95% CI=1.25-3.16), Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ≥5 (aOR:2.80; 95%CI = 1.77-4.42) and increase in serum creatinine (aOR:1.32; 95%CI=1.07-1.61) were independently associated with disease severity. Septic shock (aOR: 13.27; 95% CI=3.78-46.65), age ≥ 60 (aOR: 3.26; 95% CI=1.07-9.89), Ferritin ≥ 1500ng/ml (aOR: 3.78; 95% CI=1.21-11.8), NLR ≥ 5 (aOR: 4.04; 95% CI=1.14-14.35) and acute kidney injury (aOR: 5.52; 95% CI=1.78-17.06) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions: We found multiple predictors to be independently associated with in-hospital mortality, except diabetes and gender. Compared to reports from other countries, the in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients was lower, despite a high burden of co-morbidities. Further research is required to explore reasons behind this dichotomy.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Infection in Developing Countries

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.