Document Type



Community Health Sciences; Internal Medicine


Background: Depression often co-exists with non-cardiovascular morbid conditions. Whether this comorbidity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease has so far not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if non-cardiovascular morbidity modifies the effect of depression on future risk of CVD.
Methods: Data was derived from the PART study (acronym in Swedish for: Psykisk hälsa, Arbete och RelaTioner: Mental Health, Work and Relationships), a longitudinal cohort study on mental health, work and relations, including 10,443 adults (aged 20-64 years). Depression was assessed using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and self-reported data on non-cardiovascular morbidity was assessed in 1998-2000. Outcomes of CVD were assessed using the National Patient Register during 2001-2014.
Results: Both depression (HR 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1, 2.0)) and non-cardiovascular morbidity (HR 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8, 2.6)) were associated with an increased future risk of CVD. The combined effect of depression and non-cardiovascular comorbidity on future CVD was HR 2.1 (95%, CI 1.3, 3.4) after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic position. Rather similar associations were seen after further adjustment for hypertension, diabetes and unhealthy lifestyle factors.
Conclusion: Persons affected by depression in combination with non-cardiovascular morbidity had a higher risk of CVD compared to those without non-cardiovascular morbidity or depression alone.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.