Document Type



Internal Medicine


Introduction Typhoid fever is a major infectious disease among the pediatric population of Pakistan. With inappropriate use of antibiotics and rising trends of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid, it is becoming a public health emergency. This study evaluated the current trends in antibiotic susceptibilities to Salmonella (S) typhi and paratyphi A, B, and C in southern Pakistan. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study, conducted in the Pediatrics Department, Civil Hospital, Jamshoro from July to December 2018, included children with S. typhi and S. paratyphi A and B strains isolated from the laboratory-based culture of blood samples. Results There were 223 (81.1%) children with S. typhi and 52 (18.9%) with S. paratyphi isolates. Their mean age was 5 ± 3 years. The most common age group with S. typhi strains was two to five years (n = 102; 37.1%). Previous trials of antibiotics were taken by 162 (58.9%) children; 65 (40.1%) of these were physician-prescribed. Cefixime was most commonly taken (66.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (33.3%). Cefixime and ceftriaxone showed 60.9% and 65.8% sensitivity, respectively. Ciprofloxacin sensitivity was seen in 50.1% S. typhi isolates. There were six (2.6%) cases of MDR typhoid and two (0.9%) cases of XDR typhoid. Conclusion Resistance to second-line antityphoid agents is increasing. Therefore, there is a need to modify prescribing behavior. The outbreak of XDR typhoid among children is an alarming public health concern for Pakistan. Widespread antibiotic stewardship programs must be conducted.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.