Document Type

Case Report

Department

Haematology/Oncology; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Abstract

Background: Hodgkin lymphoma is a systemic disease that commonly involves the cervical, supraclavicular, and mediastinal lymph nodes. The involvement of central nervous system in Hodgkin lymphoma is extremely rare, and diagnosis is usually established using distinct morphological and immunohistochemical staining on the tissue biopsied. Extranodal presentation of HL is a rare occurrence. It has been evident that prognosis is encouraging in patients with disease that is limited to just central nervous system initially or as relapse, compared with involvement of multiple sites of relapse.
Case presentation: We herein report a case of a 35-year-old South-East Asian male with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient developed a parotid gland lesion, cervical lymphadenopathy with significant weight loss, and intermittent night sweats. Along with spread to the central nervous system, there was a high suspicion of tuberculosis. Upon biopsy of his cervical lymph node, the patient was confirmed to have Hodgkin lymphoma. Immediate treatment began with six cycles of chemotherapy consisting of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. The patient received three cycles of chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide but then was lost to follow-up. Five years later, the patient suffered a road traffic accident. Upon work-up, a right parietal space-occupying lesion with moderate cerebral edema and midline shift was found on computed tomography of the brain. The patient underwent resection of the space-occupying lesion of brain, with features consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma on histopathology examination. It is crucial for such lesions to be investigated meticulously to rule out any secondary disease process.
Conclusion: Relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma with central nervous system involvement is relatively rare with just over two dozen cases reported to date and is observed infrequently in developing nations. Therefore, space-occupying lesion should always be investigated, and biopsy of such lesions is gold standard to establish diagnosis. With timely appropriate therapy, complete remission can be achieved. However, large-scale studies would be prudent to explore the presentation, survival, and treatment options for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma involving the central nervous system.

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Publication

Journal of Medical Case Reports

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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