Factors predicting the recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis

Sajjad Jamil, Aga Khan University
Shahid Ahmed, Ziauddin University
Adil Memon, Dow University of Health Sciences
Sara Masood, Dow University of Health Sciences
Syed Hasnain Ali Shah, Aga Khan University
Saeed Sadiq Hamid, Aga Khan University
Wasim Jafri, Aga Khan University


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with end stage liver disease and the factors responsible for it.

STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study.

PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from November 2008 till November 2009.

METHODOLOGY: Patients with cirrhosis who were admitted at AKUH with diagnosis of SBP during the study period were included. Any episode of SBP after resolution of the first index case of SBP within one year was considered as recurrence.

RESULTS: Out of 238 cirrhotic patients, 157 (66%) had single, while 81 (34%) had recurrent episodes of SBP. History of using proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and diuretics was found in 113 (47.5%) and 139 (58.4%) patients respectively. Only 58 24.4%) patients were on prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Univariate analysis revealed that the female gender (52%), and presence of porto-systemic encephalopathy (PSE, 31%) were statistically significant (p=0.03) among those who had recurrent SBP. On multivariate analysis bilirubin level of > 1.0 mg (OR=7.03; 95%CI=1.55-32), protective factor of hepatitis B (OR 0.31; 95%CI=0.13-0.70) and presence of urinary tract infection (UTI) (OR=2.24; 95%CI=0.99-5.09) were significant in patients with recurrent SBP.

CONCLUSION: Recurrent SBP was noticed in 34% patients. Serum bilirubin level of > 1.0 mg, protective factor of HBV and presence of UTI were significant factors present in patients with recurrent SBP.